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TN12th Physics Guide Chapter 11 Recent Developments in Physics

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Tamilnadu TN12th Physics Solutions Chapter 11 Recent Developments in Physics

12th Physics Guide for Tamilnadu school students is available on our pages, but this page shows the entire guide in the text so that the students can download or print directly using the print option given in the below section.12th physics book back answers are prepared by published with the help of qualified teachers.

12th physics book back problems with answers are help students to get full marks, Every student want physics guide for 12th physics answer key. So we prepared this physics guide for the 12th standard students

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TN12th Physics Recent Developments in Physics Textual Evaluation Solved

TN12th Physics Recent Developments in Physics Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
The particle size of ZnO material is 30 nm. Based on the dimension it is classified as –
(a) Bulk material
(b) Nanomaterial
(c) Soft material
(d) Magnetic material.
Answer:
(b) Nanomaterial

Question 2.
Which one of the following is the natural nanomaterial?
(a) Peacock feather
(b) Peacock beak
(c) Grain of sand
(d) Skin of the Whale.
Answer:
(a) Peacock feather

Question 3.
The blue print for making ultra durable synthetic material is mimicked from-
(a) Lotus leaf
(b) Morpho butterfly
(c) Parrot fish
(d) Peacock feather.
Answer:
(c) Parrot fish

Question 4.
The method of making nanomaterial by assembling the atoms is called-
(a) Top down approach
(h) Bottom up approach
(c) Cross down approach
(d) Diagonal approach.
Answer:
(b) Bottom up approach

Question 5.
“Sky wax” is an application of nano product in the field of-
(a) Medicine
(b) Textile
(c) Sports
(d) Automotive industry.
Answer:
(c) Sports

Question 6.
The materials used in Robotics are-
(a) Aluminium and silver
(b) Silver and gold
(c) Copper and gold
(d) Steel and aluminium.
Answer:
(d) Steel and aluminum.

Question 7.
The alloys used for muscle wires in Robots are-
(a) Shape memory alloys
(b) Gold copper alloys
(c) Gold silver alloys
(d) Two dimensional alloys.
Answer:
(a) Shape memory alloys

Question 8.
The technology used for stopping the brain from processing pain is-
(a) Precision medicine
(b) Wireless brain sensor
(c) Virtual reality
(d) Radiology.
Answer:
(c) Virtual reality

Question 9.
The particle which gives mass to protons and neutrons are-
(a) Higgs particle
(b) Einstein particle
(c) Nanoparticle
(d) Bulk particle.
Answer:
(a) Higgs particle

Question 10.
The gravitational waves were theoretically proposed by-
(a) Conrad Rontgen
(b) Marie Curie
(c) Albert Einstein
(d) Edward Purcell.
Answer:
(c) Albert Einstein

TN12th Physics Recent Developments in Physics Short Answer Questions

Question 1.
Distinguish between Nanoscience and Nanotechnology?
Answer:
1. Nanoscience:

  • Nanoscience is the science of objects with typical sizes of 1 – 100 nm. Nano means one – billionth of a metre that is 10-9 m.
  • If matter is divided into such small objects the mechanical, electrical, optical, magnetic and other properties change.

2. Nanotechnology:

  • Nanotechnology is a technology involving the design, production, characterization, and applications of nano structured materials.

Question 2.
What is the difference between Nano materials and Bulk materials?
Answer:

  1. The solids are made up of particles. Each of the particle has a definite number of atoms, which might differ from material to material. If the particle of a solid is of size less than 100 nm, it is said to be a ‘nano solid’.
  2. When the particle size exceeds 100 nm, it is a ‘bulk solid’. It is to be noted that nano and bulk solids may be of the same chemical composition.
  3. For example, ZnO can be both in bulk and nano form.
  4. Though chemical composition is the same, nano form of the material shows strikingly different properties when compared to its bulk counterpart.

Question 3.
Give any two examples for “Nano” in nature.
Answer:
1.  Single strand DNA:
A single strand of DNA, the building block of all living things, is about three nanometers wide.

2. Morpho Butterfly:
The scales on the wings of a morpho butterfly contain nanostructures that change the way light waves interact with each other, giving the wings brilliant metallic blue and green hues. Mimic in laboratories – Manipulation of colours by adjusting the size of nano particles with which the materials are made.

Question 4.
Mention any two advantages and disadvantages of Robotics.
Answer:

  1. Advantages of Robotics:
    • The robots are much cheaper than humans.
    • Robots never get tired like humans. It can work for 24 x 7. Hence absenteeism in work place can be reduced.
    • Robots are more precise and error free in performing the task.
  2. Disadvantages of Robotics:
    • Robots have no sense of emotions or conscience.
    • They lack empathy and hence create an emotionless workplace.
    • If ultimately robots would do all the work, and the humans will just sit and monitor them, health hazards will increase rapidly.

Question 5.
Why steel is preferred in making Robots?
Answer:
Steel is several time stronger. In any case, because of the inherent strength of metal, robot bodies are made using sheet, bar, rod, channel, and other shapes.

Question 6.
What are black holes?
Answer:
Black holes are end stage of stars which are highly dense massive object. Its mass ranges from 20 times mass of the sun to 1 million times mass of the sun. It has very strong gravitational force such that no particle or even light can escape from it. The existence of black holes is studied when the stars orbiting the black hole behave differently from the other starts. Every galaxy has black hole at its center. Sagittarius A* is the black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy.

Question 7.
What are sub atomic particles?
Answer:

  1. The three main subatomic particles that form an atom are protons, neutrons and electrons.
  2. Subatomic particles are particles that are smaller than the atom, proton and neutron are made up of quarks which is interact through gluons.
  3. Subatomic particle having two types of particles, they are elementary particle and composite particle.

TN12th Physics Recent Developments in Physics Long Answer Questions

Question 1.
Discuss the applications of Nanomaterials in various fields?
Answer:
(i) Automotive industry:

  • Lightweight construction
  • Painting (fillers, base coat, clear coat)
  • Catalysts
  • Tires (fillers)
  • Sensors
  • Coatings for window screen and car bodies

(ii) Chemical industry:

  • Fillers for paint systems
  • Coating systems based on nanocomposites
  • Impregnation of papers
  • Switchable adhesives
  • Magnetic fluids

(iii) Engineering

  • Wear protection for tools and machines (anti blocking coatings, scratch resistant coatings on plastic parts, etc.)
  • Lubricant – free bearings

(iv) Electronic industry

  • Data memory
  • Displays
  • Laser diodes
  • Glass fibres
  • Optical switches
  • Filters (IR-blocking)
  • Conductive, antistatic coatings

(v) Construction:

  • Construction materials
  • Thermal insulation
  • Flame retardants
  • Surface – functionalised building materials for wood, floors, stone, facades, tiles, roof tiles, etc.
  • Facade coatings
  • Groove mortar

(vi) Medicine:

  • Drug delivery systems
  • Contrast medium
  • Prostheses and implants
  • Agents in cancer therapy
  • Active agents
  • Medical rapid tests
  • Antimicrobial agents and coatings

(vii) Textile / fabrics / non – wovens:

  • Surface – processed textiles
  • Smart clothes

(viii) Energy:

  • Fuel cells
  • Solar cells
  • Batteries
  • Capacitors

(ix) Cosmetics:

  • Sun protection
  • Lipsticks
  • Skin creams
  • Tooth paste

(x) Food and drinks:

  • Package materials
  • Additives
  • Storage life sensors
  • Clarification of fruit juices

(xi) Household:

  • Ceramic coatings for irons
  • Odors catalyst
  • Cleaner for glass, ceramic, floor, windows

(xii) Sports / outdoor:

  • Ski wax
  • Antifogging of glasses / goggles
  • Antifouling coatings for ships / boats
  • Reinforced tennis rackets and balls.

Question 2.
What are the possible harmful effects of usage of Nanoparticles? Why?
Answer:
Possible harmful effects of usage of Nanoparticles:

1. The research on the harmful impact of application of nanotechnology is also equally important and fast developing. The major concern here is that the nanoparticles have the dimensions same as that of the biological molecules such as proteins. They may easily get absorbed onto the surface of living organisms and they might enter the tissues and fluids of the body.

2. The adsorbing nature depends on the surface of the nanoparticle. Indeed, it is possible to deliver a drug directly to a specific cell in the body by designing the surface of a nanoparticle so that it adsorbs specifically onto the surface of the target cell.

3. The interaction with living systems is also affected by the dimensions of the nanoparticles. For instance, nanoparticles of a few nanometers size may reach well inside biomolecules, which is not possible for larger nanoparticles.

4. Nanoparticles can also cross cell membranes. It is also possible for the inhaled nanoparticles to reach the blood, to reach other sites such as the liver, heart or blood cells.

5. Researchers are trying to understand the response of living organisms to the presence of nanoparticles of varying size, shape, chemical composition and surface characteristics.

Question 3.
Discuss the functions of key components in Robots?
Answer:
The robotic system mainly consists of sensors, power supplies, control systems, manipulators and necessary software. Most robots are composed of 3 main parts:

  1. The Controller: Also known as the “brain” which is run by a computer program. It gives commands for the moving parts to perform the job.
  2. Mechanical parts: Motors, pistons, grippers, wheels, and gears that make the robot move, grab, turn, and lift.
  3. Sensors: To tell the robot about its surroundings. It helps to determine the sizes and shapes of the objects around, distance between the objects, and directions as well.

Question 4.
Elaborate any two types of Robots with relevant examples?
Answer:
(i) Human Robot: Certain robots are made to resemble humans in appearance and replicate the human activities like walking, lifting, and sensing, etc.

  1. Power conversion unit:
    Robots are powered by batteries, solar power, and hydraulics.
  2. Actuators:
    Converts energy into movement. The majority of the actuators produce rotational or linear motion.
  3. Electric motors:
    They are used to actuate the parts of the robots like wheels, arms, fingers,
    legs, sensors, camera, weapon systems etc. Different types of electric motors are used. The most often used ones are AC motor, Brushed DC motor, Brushless DC motor, Geared DC motor, etc.
  4. Pneumatic Air Muscles:
    They are devices that can contract and expand when air is pumped inside. It can replicate the function of a human muscle. They contract almost 40% when the air is sucked inside them.
  5. Muscle wires:
    They are thin strands of wire made of shape memory alloys. They can contract by 5% when electric current is passed through them.
  6. Piezo Motors and Ultrasonic Motors:
    Basically, we use it for industrial robots.
  7. Sensors:
    Generally used in task environments as it provides information of real – time knowledge.
  8. Robot locomotion:
    Provides the types of movements to a robot. The different types are:  
    • Legged
    • Wheeled
    • Combination of Legged and Wheeled Locomotion
    • Tracked slip / skid.

(ii) Industrial Robots:
Six main types of industrial robots:

  1. Cartesian
  2. SCARA (Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm)
  3. Cylindrical
  4. Delta
  5.  Polar
  6. Vertically articulated

Six – axis robots are ideal for:

  1. Arc Welding
  2. Spot Welding
  3. Material Handling
  4. Machine Tending
  5. Other Applications

Question 5.
Comment on the recent advancement in medical diagnosis and therapy.
Answer:
The recent advancement in medical diagnosis and therapy:

  1. Virtual reality
  2. Precision medicine
  3. Health wearables
  4. Artificial organs
  5.  3 – D printing
  6. Wireless brain sensors
  7. Robotic surgery
  8. Smart inhalers

1. Virtual reality:
Medical virtual reality is effectively used to stop the brain from processing pain and cure soreness in the hospitalized patients. Virtual reality has enhanced surgeries by the use of 3D models by surgeons to plan operations. It helps in the treatment of Autism, Memory loss, and Mental illness.

2. Precision medicine:
Precision medicine is an emerging approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle for each person. In this medical model it is possible to customise healthcare, with medical decisions, treatments, practices, or products which are tailored to the individual patient.

3. Health wearables:
A health wearable is a device used for tracking a wearer’s vital signs or health and fitness related data, location, etc. Medical wearables with artificial intelligence and big data provide an added value to healthcare with a focus on diagnosis, treatment, patient monitoring and prevention.

Note: Big Data:Extremely large data sets that may be analysed computationally to reveal patterns, trends, and associations, especially relating to human behaviour and interactions.

4. Artificial organs:
An artificial organ is an engineered device or tissue that is implanted or integrated into a human. It is possible to interface it with living tissue or to replace a natural organ. It duplicates or augments a specific function or functions of human organs so that the patient may return to a normal life as soon as possible.

5. 3D printing:
Advanced 3D printer systems and materials assist physicians in a range of operations in the medical field from audiology, dentistry, orthopedics and other applications.

6. Wireless brain sensors:
Wireless brain sensors monitor intracranial pressure and temperature and then are
absorbed by the body. Hence there is no need for surgery to remove these devices.

7. Robotic surgery:
Robotic surgery is a type of surgical procedure that is done using robotic systems. Robotically – assisted surgery helps to overcome the limitations of pre – existing minimally invasive surgical procedures and to enhance the capabilities of surgeons performing open
surgery.

8. Smart inhalers:
Inhalers are the main treatment option for asthma. Smart inhalers are designed with health systems and patients in mind so that they can offer maximum benefit. Smart inhalers use bluetooth technology to detect inhaler use, remind patients when to take their medication and gather data to help guide care.

TN12th Physics Recent Developments in Physics Additional Questions

TN12th Physics Recent Developments in Physics Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1.
An automatic apparatus or device that performs functions ordinarily ascribed to human or
operate with what appears to be almost human intelligence is called ……………. .
(a) Robot
(b) Human
(c) Animals
(d) Reptiles.
Answer:
(a) Robot.

Question 2.
The laws of Robotics are ……………. .
(a) a robot may not injure a human being
(b) a robot must obey the order given by human
(c) a robot must protect its own existence
(d) both b and c.
Answer:
(d) both b and c.
Hint:
A robot may not injure a human being or through in action, allow human being to be harmed.

Question 3.
The basic components of robot are ……………. .
(a) mechanical linkage
(b) sensors and controllers
(c) user interface and power conversion unit
(d) All the above.
Answer:
(d) All the above.

Question 4.
What is the name for information sent from robot sensors to robot controllers ……………. .
(a) temperature
(b) pressure
(c) feedback
(d) signal.
Answer:
(c) feedback

Question 5.
Which of the following uses radio frequency to produce nano – particles ……………. .
(a) Plasma arching
(b) Chemical vapour deposition
(c) Sol-gel technique
(d) Electro deposition.
Answer:
(a) Plasma arching

Question 6.
Which of the following the atoms do not move from each other ……………. .
(a) Shape memory alloys
(b) Nano materials
(c) Dielectrics
(d) Static materials.
Answer:
(b) Nano materials

Question 7.
The diameter of the nano wire is about ……………. .
(a) 10-6 m
(b) 10-3 m
(c) 10-8 m
(d) 10-9 m.
Answer:
(d) 10-9 m.

Question 8.
A suspended nano wire is a wire that is produced in ……………. .
(a) Air medium
(b) Vaccum
(c) Low vaccum chamber
(d) High vaccum chamber.
Answer:
(d) High vaccum chamber.

Question 9.
For nano metres whose diameters less than …………….are used as welding purposes.
(a) 10 nm
(b) 20 nm
(c) 30 nm
(d) 40 nm.
Answer:
(a) 10 nm

Question 10.
Nano wires are used in ……………. .
(a) 10 nm
(b) Resistors
(c) Capacitors
(d) Transducers.
Answer:
(a) 10 nm

Question 11.
Generally what is the material of needle electrodes ……………. .
(a) Stainless steel
(b) Copper
(c) Lead
(d) Iron.
Answer:
(a) Stainless steel

Question 12.
……………. introduced is used to hold patients head and guide the placements of electrodes.
(a) Monotaxic
(b) Stereotonic
(c) Stereotaxic
(d) Monotonic.
Answer:
(c) Stereotaxic

Question 13.
Who is the father of the modem robotics industry formed the world’s first robotic company in 1956 ……………. .
(a) Joliot
(b) Cormark
(c) Engelberger
(d) Edward purcell.
Answer:
(c) Engelberger

Question 14.
In 1954, ……………. invented the first digitally operated programmable robot called unimate.
(a) Edward purcell
(b) George Devol
(c) Engel berger
(d) Joliot.
Answer:
(b) George Devol

Question 15.
The phenomenon of artificial radioactivity was invented by ……………. .
(a) Joliot and Irene curie
(b) Felix Bloch and Edward purcell
(c ) Connack and Hounsfield
(d) Wilhelm conrad – Rontgen.
Answer:
(a) Joliot and Irene curie

TN12th Physics Recent Developments in Physics Short Answer Question

Question 1.
What is physics?
Answer:
Physics is the basic building block for Science, Engineering, Technology and Medicine.

Question 2.
Write down the applications of Nano technology?
Answer:

  • Energy storage
  • Metallurgy and materials
  • Optical engineering and communication
  • Agriculture and food
  • Biotechnology
  • Defense and security Electronics
  • Biomedical and drug delivery
  • Cosmetics and paints
  • Textile.

Question 3.
What is robotics?
Answer:
Robotics is an integrated study of mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, computer engineering, and science.

Question 4.
What is meant by ‘Robot’? Write its uses?
Answer:
Robot is a mechanical device designed with electronic circuitry and programmed to perform a specific task. These automated machines are highly significant in this robotic era where they can take up the role of humans in certain dangerous environments that are hazardous to people like defusing bombs, finding survivors in unstable ruins, and exploring mines and shipwrecks.

Question 5.
What is the meaning of particle physics?
Answer:
Particle physics deals with the theory of fundamental particles of nature and it is one of the active research areas in physics. Initially it was thought that atom is the fundamental entity of matter.

Question 6.
Define cosmology?
Answer:
Cosmology is the branch that involves the origin and evolution of the universe. It deals with formation of stars, galaxy etc.

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